AUGUST - « •
ITEQ STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR * OFFICE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS-WA5HING
A happy Navajo CCC-ID enrollee pictured as he works re-
storing ancient Pueblo Bonito. (See page 8. )
lERlStHl AT WORK
CONTENTS OF THE ISSUE OF AUGUST 1939
Volume VI Number 12
Editorial John Collier 1
Washington Office Visitors 3
Work G. B. Arthur 5
Prehistoric City Of Pueblo Bonito Be-
ing Restored By Indian CCC Workers 8
Death Calls Douglas H. Johnston, Last
Governor Of Chickasaw Nation , 11
The Sheep Industry Of Indians In The
Southwest J. M. Cooper and
Dewey Dismuke 13
The Florida Seminole CCC Sponsors A
Community Celebration 21
A Foreign Observer And Authority Gives
His Impressions And Views On In-
dians And The Indian Service Dr. A. Grenfell Price . 23
The North Star To Visit The Southern
Indian Art In The Modern Home Clyde C. Hall 29
Indians And Indian Matters As Glimpsed
In The Daily Press 31
Mesa Verde Pine Logs Last Nearly Nine
Indian Children Exhibit Paintings And
Drawings In Washington 33
Isolated Eskimos On King Island In
Bering Sea Adopt Constitution 35
Paiute Indian Agency Discontinued 36
A Truck Garden On The Pine Ridge Res-
ervation, South Dakota John M. Scott 37
Native Navajo Rug Weavers Demonstrate
Use Of Natural Dyes To Color Yarns 39
"Horse Leather" - Rawhide Quirts And
Lariats Once More Available £1
New York Agency Moved To Buffalo 42
Mojave Tribe Of Arizona Names^New Lake 42
Indians In Periodical Literature 43
CCC-ID Reports 44
ANews Sheet for INDIANS and the INDIAN SERVICE
VOLUME VI - • AUGUST 1939 - - NUMBER \Z
what was this country like when the Indians surrendered it
to the white man?
A dramatic answer has presented itself just now. On the
Pine Ridge Reservation there has been discovered a 79-acre inaccess-
ible tableland which apparently had never been grazed by livestock
or touched by fire. As a result, and in spite of the climatic cycle
that has played havoc with the dust bowl, this tiny mesa represents
the climax type of virgin grass lands. It resembles the tall -grass
prairies of the Mississippi Valley, " has no short buffalo grass , top-
soil two feet deep and a thick layer of humus comparable in depth and
composition to forest litter." From the conservation standpoint,
this mesa is comparable to the Chinese temple forests and fully as
significant; for the researcher in botany and ecology it is a mouth-
In the experience of a single life, silent changes of phys-
ical environment appear to be slow. Only sometimes, as when a vast
forest fire destroys both trees and humus, does the individual get
any dramatic sense of these changes which alter the entire prospect
of human and animal life.
But in the historical view, the changes which have come to
the United States are as swift, almost, as a lightning flash. The
ecological record is that of a hundred million years. The human
record is that of fifteen thousand years, more or less. The destruc-
tion of the natural resources is a matter of less than a hundred
years, or one-one hundred and fiftieth of the brief human span.
Looking forward, mankind is entitled biologically and cos-
mologically to be alive on this planet for thousands of millions of
years to come.
It is very doubtful whether that life will be ecologically
possible if the destructions of the last hundred years go on for
another hundred years.
All of that crisis of history represented by the World War
or world-armed-preparedness, and even the cataclysm of an engulfing
war which may be near at hand, is likely in the eyes of history to
be far less significant than the silent, often irreversable destruc-
tions of natural ecology, which are going forward over most of the
planet and nowhere else so fast as in the United States. At least,
in no other large area has destruction gone ahead in so multiform a
course, and so needlessly and wantonly, as in the United States.
Knowledge of how to save the ecological basis of human life
is already ample.
Not only is the knowledge at hand, but it is within the
present practical reach of governments and of non-governmental groups
to achieve the result within a single lifetime.
There is no fundamental chaos of interests or conflict of
interests, standing opposed to the saving of the basic ecology of
If our present generation "passes up" its opportunity,
and its duty to the whole of future time, what a drab, pitiful, un-
compensated tragedy it will be.
On the other hand, this generation has the power, the know-
ledge, the splendid opportunity.
Indians are playing a genuinely creative part in the ef-
fort, just commencing, to save the natural ecology.
The Indians can do a great deal more than they are doing.
In all that they do, if it is well done, the Indians are
reaffirming their own most fundamental tradition as well as estab-
lishing their claim upon the future.
Thirty-five years ago, in New York, I was introduced to a
young Indian girl of striking beauty. This was my first contact with
an Indian. What impressed me, even then, was a fusion of delicate
and dignified aristocracy with a joy and an energy of life that often
are not met with in aristocrats.
It was many years later that I came to know this girl's
father. He was Douglas H. Johnston, Governor of the Chickasaw Na-
tion. Governor Johnston died June 28. Those who spoke at his fun-
eral suggested that he had been for a generation the representative
Indian. Certainly, Governor Johnston was a distinguished man from
every point of view. He was a man of beautiful physiognomy, and the
physiognomy reflected a character of great beauty. He possessed the
highest human sensitiveness. He was without egotism, and brought to
every contact a spirit of detachment. Yet he cared deeply for people
and for causes.
Governor Johnston was truly Indian. Yet not only Indian;
there had entered into his own heritage an element of the aristocracy
of the Old South. Yet truly and thoroughly Indian he was. His life
was completely identified with his people. Governor Johnston died at
83 years and in the fullness of time.
Commissioner of Indian Affairs
WASHINGTON OFFICE VISITORS
Recent visitors to the Washington Office have included
the following: Guy Hobgood, Superintendent, Cheyenne and Arapaho
Indian Agency in Oklahoma; Ben Dwight, Organization Field Agent;
Frank Beaver, William Davis and Elwood Harlan, all of the Winnebago
Agency in Nebraska.
: • ! "•.
Indians Working With Hands And Minds
On Road Construction In Oklahoma
By G. B. Arthur,
No other word
forms as long a chain
of associations for the
human race as work. It
is responsible for ev-
ery refinement in civi-
lization, every comfort,
all material security.
I t has bridged chasms
of failure and despair.
It has s obered successes.
Primeval man knew it as
essential activity. In
softer times we have
branded it drudgery.
Yet, regardless of seem-
ing hardship and
work marks the periods
of advancement of the
One of the vagaries of human thinking is the idea that
serving someone else is work, whereas to be in business is not. An-
other is that some kinds of work are more honorable than others;
that work in rough clothes, handling tools, is inferior to work in
clean attire. Still another notion is that one who labors in the
field or irrigation ditch really works, but that the foreman does
Our notions about work have always fitted the circumstances
in which we lived. There have been times in all races when the men
were entirely engaged in hunting because most of our food was won in
that way. And when the paths of competitive tribes crossed the men
went to war, knowing no other way to protect their rights. Men had
to train for their pursuits. The woman accepted her place as an in-
dispensable economic unit, carrying her part of the social burden
without questioning. Risks were many, fortitude ran high, and losses
were mourned and soon forgotten.
Back over that trail of work we search with interest for
the impulses which have built our concept of labor. When did men
first see that they did not work with their hands? When did they
first realize that the truer aim of the hand came by training the
mind behind the hand? What light gleamed in the first startling
discovery that fire could be made by friction? When did man first
look up and understand that he did not live actually in a mortal en-
casement? When - and how - did we begin to see that work is emanci-
There are no dates for any of these discoveries. They
came as men grew. The light spread through the mass of people as
the ages went by, and more and more men realized that distinction
and leadership came not by accident nor by any sleight of hand, but
by superior mental ability and training. Philosophers were content
with dreamy aloofness in one period of history, and to this day,
those who sit long in meditation and deal in abstractions are held in
less esteem than those who vigorously apply their knowledge. Men
have always seen that ability must be active, it must be expressed,
applied, if it is to bring any gain. They saw long ago that the
needs of society must be served with knowledge put to work. Thus we
came to define work. And thus it became honorable.
For work is liberation. Nothing can exist without expres-
sion. The most subtle or the most amazing discovery in one man's
mind is without entity until he expresses it. Lincoln might have
stood long on the platform at Gettysburg and thought prodigiously
with no effect, but he stood there a few minutes only and molded
the sentiment of a nation with simple words which have been carved
in stone around the world.
There is no race or people that can live without expres-
sion. No person has a right to exist without expressing whatever
of talent and ability has been given him. It is the sum total of
these individual expressions which emancipates the race from fears
and woes and limitations. Only the expressing of a living thing
can make it live.
It is the expression of talents and skills and courage
in other days which made all our records. In every tribe and people
we glorify those who do great things. In every council men stand up
and recount the valorous deeds of those who lead through crises.
Work is the record of humanity. Those who fearlessly stand out and
use what has been given them for service to their fellows win renown.
Masses who are content with lesser things glide noiselessly through
the passes of darkness into oblivion. Time is recorded in the work
In these days it is hard for some to see how their work can
be important. But it is important. It is important to the individual;
in it he must serve as an essential unit in the scheme of things, and
without him some necessary function will go undone. It is important
to society, which is only the aggregate of all of us, that he should
do his work. His tithe is needed for the upbuilding of the whole.
Many of us work for others, which is honorable and con-
structive, developing sterling qualities and gaining spiritual satis-
faction. Once discerned, nothing can deprive a man of his inner in-
tegrity and his pride in inherent manfulness, taking and holding his
place among others through honest labor. The manager and the fore-
man, the owner and mechanic, the banker and the preacher, all must
win respect in this way. There is no other.
When the work can be done for one's self, or one's own
people, as among Indians living upon their own lands, work takes on
a higher quality than it can in any other way. Work then becomes
something more than labor. It becomes a key to tomorrow. It be-
comes a channel through which the skillful expression of native abil-
ity produces commodities which the world wants. Society needs the
Indians' integrity, their calm and poised outlook upon life, their
customs and traditions. And it needs their participation in the task
of molding their own welfare and prosperity.
Everywhere among Indians today their emancipation grows
through expression of themselves, their arts and abilities, by means
of work. The evidence is multiplying more rapidly because we Cauca-
sians are opening our eyes to the need for practical training toward
self-expression and self-support. There is no greater need than for
loosening and flexing our imagination, for opening gates and doors,
for letting down bars, for making necessary work yield its utmost in
training. For the Indian, like every other tribe and people, will
achieve his liberation from social and economic limitations and re-
strictions through his own work.
Beyond the roads in Glacier National Park in Northwestern
Montana extend more than three-quarters of a million acres of prime-
val wilderness which remain a challenge to the trail rider, hiker,
and mountain climber alike, Arno B. Cammerer, Director of the Na-
tional Park Service, stated recently. Excellent fishing abounds in
the lakes and streams and plant and animal life is protected.
PREHISTORIC CITY OF PUEBLO BONITO ( NEW MEXICO ) BEING RESTORED
BY INDIAN CCC WORKERS
Navajos Save Famous Chaco Canyon Ruins
General View Of Pueblo Bonito Ruins, Chaco Canyon National Monument,
New Mexico. (Circular Structures Are Remnants Of Kivas, The Sacred
The ancient and the modern are strangely united at the
prehistoric city of Pueblo Bonito, New Mexico, where Navajo Indian
Civilian Conservation Corps workers are engaged in restoring the
famous ruins of Chaco Canyon, the abandoned empire of 10,000 people.
A working agreement between the Navajo Indian Service and
the National Park Service has resulted in the restoration and pres-
ervation of the priceless rooms of what archaeologists consider some
of the finest prehistoric pueblos in North America. Since 1937> ap-
proximately 20 Navajo CCC-ID workers have been at work with trowel
and mortar, replacing piece by piece, under the supervision of Na-
tional Park Service archaeologists, the fallen walls and crumbling
kivao of these great pueblos.
Pueblo Bonito was occupied from 919 to 1127 A.D. Follow-
ing the 208-year occupation, the great walls fell prey to the ravages.
of wind and water and vandal-
ism before the Federal Gov-
ernment guaranteed its future
preservation by setting it a-
side as a National Monument
in 1903. No important resto-
ration work occurred until
1937 when the Indian Service
and the Park Service came to
the rescue. A nearby camp
was established for the en-
rollees and the laborious
task of replacing the iden-
tical masonry began. Great
quantities of blow sand have
covered much of the fallen
walls. The Navajos remove
the overburden and with wa-
terproof mortar, each stone
is returned to its former lo-
Stabilization, o r
the preserving of ruins in
their present state, has been
a great need. Prehistoric
walls, many 800 years old,
are crumbl ing away from
weathering and wind erosion. In some cases walls have been broken
down in unprotected areas by pot hunters. This Navajo CCC-ID unit,
classified as the "Mobile Unit", also is restoring Aztec ruins lo-
cated near Pueblo Bonito, and it is hoped will stabilize other ruins
in great danger of deterioration.
Chaco Canyon National Monument is located about 86 miles
north of Gallup, New Mexico. Containing the ancient ruins of 17 ma-
jor cities and several hundred small villages, it is of unusual pre-
historic and architectural interest.
The ruins, many only partially excavated - Pueblo Pintako,
Kin Klizlin, Penasco Blanco which boasts a tree ring date of 898 A.
D. , Hungo Pavi, Chettro Nettle, now being excavated by the University
of New Mexico, Pueblo Bonito and many others - are all that remain of
a peaceful farming civilization of the ninth to twelfth centuries.
Most of the ruins are found in the broad shallow canyon bordered by
buff sandstone walls, the center cut by a deep, crooked arroyo. Pueb-
lo del Arroyo on the banks of Chaco Wash is slowly being washed down-
stream by recurrent summer flood waters. The Soil Conservation Serv-
ice has done much to save these prehistoric apartment houses, but
more must be done before the danger of complete eventual loss is
CCC-ID Workmen Engaged In The Restoration Work.
work has been
done at Pueblo
Bonito, the larg-
est ruins so far
is a "D" shaped
three acre s of
ground and once
rooms and 32
k i v as or cere-
Until 1880, it
was the largest apartment house in the United States. The rock ma-
sonry found here is of the best type in the Chaco. The walls, about
two feet thick, are decorated with bands of rock veneer of varying
widths, making a pleasing and intricate design with courses two to
three inches wide laid over a series one-half inch wide. Summer
floods and alternate thaws and freezes of severe winters cause the
unprotected walls to deteriorate rapidly.
Much of the stabilization program calls for capping the
tops of exposed walls by removing the top layer of stones and re-
setting them in Bitudobe mortar, replacing recently fallen walls or
openings, and restoring veneer coursing.
They have capped thousands of yards of walls; braced walls
so cleverly that it is not apparent to the visitor; dug drainage
ditches to prevent water from standing against walls and in kivas;
replaced thousands of square feet of veneer; waterproofed a kiva at
Aztec Monument, 64. miles north of Chaco; patched holes with hundreds
of cubic yards of masonry, and cleared rooms of blown sand. They
must search for the rock; haul it to the job; remove sand blown
waste; match rock coursing; erect scaffolds; mix mortar and haul sand
and gravel for concrete coring or bracing from the San Juan 65 miles
Archaeologists who come from many parts of the world to do
research work and excavation among the ancient pueblos of Chaco Can-
yon are loud in their praise of the job being performed by the Nav-
DEATH CALLS DOUGLAS H. JOHNSTON , LAST GOVERNOR OF CHICKASAW NATION
A man described in the House of Representatives on July 1
as "one of the greatest Indian leaders of all time ...a builder of
our great state of Oklahoma, and a man of great wisdom and strong
character" died on June 28, in Oklahoma City.
Last governor to be elected by the Chickasaw Nation, Doug-
las Johnston has become a familiar figure in the nation's capital
and throughout the State of Oklahoma in his long battle for the
rights of his people.
Having seen half a century in the service of his tribe,
Governor Johnston was approximately 83 years old when he was over-
come by illness two weeks before his death while attending his last
session of Congress in Washington, D. C. It is thought in Washing-
ton that he attended every session of Congress since 1898.
Johnston's father, a white man, had held contracts with
the Federal Government in the early nineteenth century for the re-
moval of the Five Civilized Tribes from Mississippi and bordering
southern states to Indian Territory. His father took refuge later
with the Chickasaw Nation during the Civil War, and Douglas John-
ston, who was one-eighth Chickasaw, became active in the affairs of
the Chickasaw Nation in the '80 f s.
At this time the Five Civilized Tribes had their own
schools, printing presses, legislatures and courts. Johnston con-
tracted with the Chickasaw Nation to operate one of its dozen
schools, the Bloomfield Academy for Girls. He continued in this ca-
pacity until 1908, although his administration of the school was in
defiance of the Act of 1906, which subjugated tribal funds, schools
and government to the United States.
In the meantime Johnston had been elected Governor of the
Chickasaw Nation in 1898 and was re-elected three times by the Chick-
asaws. As Johnston was still Governor in 1906, the Act of 1906 con-
tinued him in office until death or disability.
One of the highlights in his career was the famous Supreme
Court decision in the Choate vs. Trappe case, which held that Indian
tribal land was not subject to taxation. Johnston also was consist-
ently instrumental in keeping persons erroneously qualifying as mem-
bers of the Chickasaw and Choctaw Nations off government . rolls . He
agitated for the Oklahoma Welfare Act of 1928 and the Act of 1936,
the second being similar to the Indian Reorganization Act in seeking
to preserve Indian lands in Oklahoma.
Johnston's body lay in state in the capital of the State
of Oklahoma and also in the capital of the Chickasaw Nation, Tish-
omingo, where he was later buried.
A NAVAJO MOTHER WITH HER CHILDREN
THE SFKTCP INDUSTRY OF INDIANS IN THE SOUTHWEST
By J. M. Cooper and Dewey Dismuke*
The Indian sheep Industry of the Southwest is in the public
eye because of its threatened extinction through the dissipation of
Indian range resources. Broad conservation measures, endorsed re-
cently by the Navajo Tribal Council, hold out the hope that the great
historical basic economy of approximately 50.000 people will not
The future of the Navajo people is inseparably tied up
with their land resources. If these resources continue to be dis-
sipated as in the past, their main hope for a self-sustaining future
is gone. The Indian Service has recognized their need for assistance
and is working on a program designed to stop this land waste and to
insure maximum future return. If sheep raising is to continue to
provide a large portion of Navajo income, range wastage through over-
grazing and erosion must be halted. Livestock numbers must be re-
*J. M. Cooper, Director, Southwestern Range and Sheep Breeding Lab-
oratory; Dewey Dismuke, Soil Conservation Service Liaison Officer,
United Pueblos Agency, New Mexico.
du ce d to a point
where the range can
support them; sheep
more suited to the
needs of the people
must be provi d ed
and unit production
of sheep must ba
increased to offset
reduction i n num-
bers. Finally, and
of vital importance,
the Navajos must be
educated in terms
of range and sheep
Pueblo lambs fattened on a Kansas feed lot
The magnitude of the task of improving the range sheep in-
dustry on the Navajo Reservation is shown by the fact that about
15,000,000 acres of range land are, or have been used by about 7,700
sheep owners. It is estimated that 1,350,000 sheep units of live-
stock were run on this area in 1931.
Despite the many difficulties encountered, some progress
has been made toward a solution of this problem. Through cooperation
with the Soil Conservation Service, much has been accomplished in
halting active erosion. Engineering structures, water spreading,
tree planting, and other forms of revegetation have aided in the ef-
fort to overcome this menace.
For better administration, the huge reservation area has
been divided into twenty smaller units; accurate livestock counts
have been made; and livestock limits set up, based on the carrying
capacity of the range in each district. Progress has been made in
the effort to reduce numbers of livestock to a point where the range
can support them. This point has not yet been reached, however, for
the reservation still carries about 830,000 sheep units, 5^0,000 of
which are mature sheep and goats, on a range whose capacity is es-
timated at 560,000 units. In efforts to reduce numbers, first con-
sideration is being given to the elimination of non-producing horses,
wethers, steers and goats, many of which could be removed without a
corresponding reduction in income.
More watering-places are being developed to reduce stock
concentration and make possible a more uniform utilization of the
range. Where soil and water conditions permit, land is being sub-
jugated for farming, each acre of which will lessen the Navajos'
dependence on range livestock.
Regulations covering the type of rams that are introduced
on the reservation have been put into effect. Ram pastures to pro-
** • *
vide for the care and
control of rams have
been built, and are now
in use. These pastures
offer great possibili-
ties a s a means of in-
fluencing sheep breed-
ing and management. If
all rams were controlled
in pastures, the now
prevalent pract i ce of
lambing from January to
July could b e entirely
Type of scrub ram to be replaced
as rapidly as possible
With t he co-
operation of the U.S.
Department of Agricul-
ture, a laboratory de-
voted to sheep and wool
research has been set up in connection with the Navajo Reservation.
The primary function of this laboratory is to determine and produce,
by the application of scientific principles, the type of sheep best-
suited to the Navajo region and the needs of the people. Work has
begun with the realization that the needs of the Navajo Indian differ
from those of his white neighbors or other Indian tribes. Some of
the Navajo wool is used for rug weaving, but the larger portion is
placed on the market in competition with other domestic supplies.
Sparse ranges eliminate the possibility of fat lamb production, but
a sheep for the Navajo should raise a desirable feeder lamb, and
provide maximum edible meat when slaughtered for family subsistence.
The present policy on the Navajo Reservation calls for the
use of smooth, long-fleeced Rambouillet rams on Indian flocks. This
uniform breeding policy will be continued until thorough testing and
trial by the laboratory or some other reputable agency demonstrates
that some other type of sheep is preferable. The laboratory is also
providing old-type Navajo rams to be used in a small section of the
reservation for the purpose of maintaining a supply of wool suitable
for Navajo weaving. A proper distribution of this wool to weavers
all over the reservation will stimulate weaving, improve the general
quality of rugs and blankets produced, and increase the income de-
rived from them.
By demonstration, administration, education, research, and
every other means available, the Government is earnestly attempting
to improve the range livestock industry, and save the land of the
Efforts to improve Pueblo sheep have been facilitated by
the fact that, compared to the Navajo, relatively small numbers of
sheep and people are involved. The different social system has
also been a factor, for it is much more difficult to carry out a pro-
gram with a given number of widely scattered and individualistic Nav-
ajos than it is with an equal number of Pueblos who may be approached
through their village governmental organization. Lagunas, Acomas and
Zunis are good farmers, and they realize a larger proportion of their
annual income from their cultivated land than do the Navajos. While
the art of weaving originated with the Pueblo people, it is no longer
an important factor in influencing their sheep industry. All of
these things made the early sheep improvement efforts along lines of
commercial demand more practical than was the case with the Navajo.
While there is still much room for improvement, Pueblo
sheep are more uniform, yield heavier fleeces, and more and better
lambs than Navajo sheep. About ten years ago, some Corriedale rams
were furnished the Zuni Reservation, but the type prevalent on the
three reservations today is predominately fine-wool.
Although exact records are not available, during the latter
part of the 19th century it is believed that the Acomas possessed
4., 000 to 5,000 sheep and goats; the Lagunas 12,000 to 15,000j and the
Zunis 12,000 to 15,000. The real increase in numbers began in 1915
and 1917 under the stimulation of high prices paid for wool and lambs
during the World War. With the drop in demand and price after the
war, there were few sales and numbers increased rapidly. For 10 or
15 years prior to 1935, it is estimated that the Acomas grazed 7,000
to 10,000 sheep and goats; the Lagunas 20,000 to 25,000; and the
Zunis 20,000 to 25,000. Some herds contained very few goats, but in
others they comprised as much as 30 per cent of the total.
In addition to increased sheep numbers, there was an in-
crease in population and in the number of individual owners. With no
definite grazing policy, the ranges became depleted and the erosion
menace assumed dangerous proportions. A few of the shrewder Indians
acquired, at the expense of their less ambitious and aggressive
neighbors, much larger herds than their family needs required. All
of these things
c omb in e d to
make the future
of the Pueblo
sheep in dustry
pr ac tices the
od of handling
his sheep, but
Good type Rambouillet rams used by
Acoma and Laguna sheep owners.
ordinarily both sheep and range suffer from excess trailing and con-
centration around corrals, bedgrounds and watering places. There is
little rotation of range and the same area is ordinarily used for
lambing year after year. Following the World War, overstocking of
reservation ranges was partially relieved by use of adjacent public
lands. Because of competition from white stockmen, this is no long-
Realizing that the ranges were badly overstocked, a con-
certed effort to relieve this condition was started in 1935. With
the approval of the Indians, plans were formulated to reduce live-
stock numbers to the carrying capacity of the range in a five-year
period. This program called for proportionate reduction in sheep
and cattle; elimination of non-productive stock; the heaviest cut on
the larger owners; and a uniform breeding improvement program to com-
pensate the reduction in numbers.
Practically all of the goats were sold from the Acoma and
Laguna flocks in 1935. A considerable goat reduction has also been
made in Zuni flocks. Disposal of this surplus livestock has been
made in the fall when the animals were in the best condition. The
Indians have been assisted in the marketing of their surplus each
year by pooling all stock, classifying them, and selling by auction
to the highest bidder. This method has resulted in financial advan-
tage to the individual owners.
The results of this general program have been encouraging.
Acoma and Laguna livestock have been reduced until they are now fair-
ly close to the estimated capacity of their ranges. The Zuni Reser-
vation, while still overstocked, has not deteriorated to the same ex-
tent as the other two. It has been demonstrated, and most of the In-
dian stockmen are convinced, that overgrazing has been the cause of
much of their trouble. At the start of the program, the attitude of
the Indians was not as receptive as it is today. Improved practices
in the handling of sheep and range have been made possible through
education and through the construction of more adequate watering
places, corrals and other handling facilities.
Improvement in the herds is being realized by the gradual
replacement of all inferior rams with Rambouillets of approved type.
In addition, the selection of the best of the ewe offspring for re-
placements is being encouraged. When not in use, ram herds are main-
tained in pastures or on range set aside for that purpose. This
practice allows for a regulation of lambing time and insures the con-
dition of the ram during the breeding period.
Lambs from the Acoma and Pueblo flocks have recently re-
ceived considerable favorable attention. In November 1937, Kansas
State Agricultural College placed a group of Acoma and Laguna lambs
on feed at the Garden City Experiment Station. These lambs made a
very satisfactory gain in the feed lot, and topped the packer market
on the day they were sold. As a result of this demonstration, there
was considerable demand for similar Pueblo lambs from commercial
feeders in the Kansas Area in the fall of 1938.
If the present range and livestock program is retained, the
future of the Pueblo sheep industry looks promising. Indian coopera-
tion is good, excess livestock has been greatly reduced, and ranges
are approaching stabilization. Better management practices are now
prevailing. With proper attention to sheep type, it is expected that
in the near future annual income will equal or exceed that derived at
the time the present program was inaugurated.
Historically, the Indian flocks of the Southwest are in-
separably a part of the record of the progress and growth of the Nav-
ajo and Pueblo Tribes.
Several Southwestern Indian tribes have long been sheep
raisers. This is particularly true of the Navajos, and the Lagunas,
Acomas and Zunis of the Pueblo Tribes. These people have relatively-
large herds which are the source of a considerable portion of their
It is a historical fact that Coronado, in his travels to
the Rio Grande region in 154-0, brought the first sheep, horses and
mules into the Southwest. The approximate number of sheep left by
him is not known, nor is it known whether any of these first animals
survived the interval before others were again brought in by the
Spaniards. It is probable, however, that the relatively practical
Pueblo people recognized the utility of the sheep and maintained it
from the start. At all events,
subsequent expeditions in to t he
Pueblo country in 1581 and 1598
again brought livestock, and from
that early date to t he pre s ent,
sheep have made major contribu-
tions t o the economic well-being
of the Indians in the Southwest.
It is believed that the
Pueblo Tribes were weavers of
cotton fabrics before the appear-
ance of sheep. Cotton clothing
and blankets are noted in the
writings of the earliest explor-
ers. Accounts of the early part
of the 17th century fail to men-
tion weaving in connection with
the Navajo, but it is probable
that shortly thereafter, b o th
Shipping Aeoma Lambs
■7 ^ ^^h
sheep and the art of weaving were acquired by them. There is little
doubt that the Pueblo was the source of both, for the Pueblo rebel-
lion that took place late in the 17th century resulted in close con-
tact between the two people.
Wool was much easier than cotton to handle with the crude
hand-weaving tools available, and the resulting woolen fabric was in-
finitely superior. In addition, sheep were producers of meat as well
as wool and it is not surprising that Pueblos and Navajos have main-
tained and steadily increased their flocks.
The Navajo rapidly built up his flocks. Some sheep may
have been secured by barter, but most of them were undoubtedly ac-
quired as the result of raids on their Pueblo and Mexican neighbors
on the east. These raids appeared entirely legitimate to the Nav-
ajos of that time and their activities were unchecked until 1863. In
the five-year period between 1863 and 1868, the United States Army
conducted a campaign against the Navajo which resulted in the de-
struction of most of their sheep; the transfer of the tribe to Bosque
Redondo on the Pecos River; and their final return under treaty to
their original country.
At Fort Defiance in 1869, the Navajos were provided with
15,000 sheep and goats. Original War Department records indicate
that this purchase was made in Mora County, Territory of New Mexico.
Nothing in these records would lead to the belief that they were any-
thing but the common sheep of the region. Some authorities believe
that the number was in excess of 15,000, and that they were of Cots-
wold breeding, but there is no documentary evidence to support this
belief. Regardless of numbers or origin, sheep furnished under the
treaty of 1868 plus the few remaining from their original flocks
started the Navajos in the sheep business again. The result of this
mixture was the old-type Navajo sheep which was well suited to the
needs of the people at that time.
Shortly after 1870, Navajo commerce with white people be-
came important, and the old-type sheep did not satisfy the expanding
trade. Efforts were then started to "breed-up" this sheep by intro-
ducing rams of various types of the established breeds. This prac-
tice has continued up to the present time. The general objective has
been to increase the quantity and improve the quality of wool and
mutton for commercial purposes. Unfortunately, there has been no
uniformity in the improvement policy, and many different breeds and
types of rams have been used. As a result, the Navajo sheep of to-
day lacks uniformity, produces very little more wool or mutton than
the original type and the wool produced is not satisfactory for hand-
weaving. Great increases in numbers along with poor management prac-
tices have stripped the ranges of much of the vegetative cover, and
erosion has become a terrible menace to the reservation. Inferior
sheep, poorly managed, on an overgrazed and badly eroded range in-
evitably results in the production of a poor crop of wool and lambs.
This, briefly, is the problem facing the Navajo today.
THE FLORIDA SEMINOLE CCC SPONSORS A COMMUNITY CELEBRATION
In the Florida Everglades, not far from the city of Miami,
may be found the picturesque Seminole Indians. Generally preferring
to remain aloof from the white man, they have nevertheless since Jan-
uary 1934, taken advantage of the work program afforded by the es-
tablishment of the CCC. Some of the large projects completed by
these enrollees are: ^6 miles of range fence built; 21 wells de-
veloped; 15 miles of truck trails built; 12 miles of standard road
built and surfaced; 1,293 acres of range improved and developed; 14
acres of camp ground developed; 663 acres of range seeded and sodded
and 2,175 shrubs and trees planted.
The Seminoles, together with similar groups throughout the
country, celebrated the sixth anniversary of the establishment of the
Civilian Conservation Corps in the spring. The accompanying photo-
graphs show the celebration in progress. (Note the interest of the
women and children spectators at the left. )
— -** -■
Charles Buster, 67 years old, a Seminole CCC
worker, is making a running high jump, and
Young and old alike,
Billy Bowlegs, who
is 72 years old, is
shown making a
broad jump and,
here is the 100-yard dash for young
men in progress.
The women were not to be left out either. Here they are shown
enjoying the refreshments, and
here, barefooted, with their long, flowing dresses and heavy
beads about their necks, they are participating in the fifty-yard dash.
A FOREIGN OBSERVER AND AUTHORITY GIVES HIS IMPRESSIONS AND
VIEWS ON AMERICAN INDIANS AND THE INDIAN SERVICE
Dr. A. Grenfell Price of Adelaide, Australia,
Reports His Preliminary Findings in the United States
Countries having the problem of an aboriginal population
might well study the new day for Indians instituted in the United
States, declared Dr. A. Grenfell Price, author and scholar from the
University of Adelaide, Australia, after a visit to the Department of
the Interior and its Office of Indian Affairs.
Dr. Price, after returning from an extensive tour of the
Southwestern Indian reservations in connection with his study of the
treatment of native peoples by English-speaking populations, spent
considerable time studying documents available in the Interior De-
partment Library. Data assembled here will be used to compare simi-
lar conditions in Australia, Canada, Alaska and New Zealand. It will
form the material for another volume to add to his previous publica-
tions: "White Settlers in the Tropics", "Foundation and Settlement
in South Australia" and "History and Problems of the Northern Terri-
After thanking the Secretary of the Interior for the cour-
tesies extended to him, Dr. Price gave an eye-witness account of the
work he found in progress, in Nevada, California, Arizona, New Mexico
"It is clear that historically the Indians of the United
States suffered as greatly, and for many of the same reasons, as the
aboriginal peoples in Australia, New Zealand and many other countries
in the possession of colonizing groups.
"In the United States the incomers seized the lands of the
Indians; .repeatedly pushed them into poorer ari"31 poorer country;
slaughtered such assets as the buffalo; frequently violated solemn
treaties; murdered them; riddled them with white men's diseases, and
other ways destroyed them."
He pointed to the allotment system as an example of "the
misguided efforts of enlightened members of the government to help
the Indian." Although designed to give individual Indians land and
absorb them into the white population, he showed how actually it re-
sulted in the creation of a landless and indigent class and enabled
the Indians to dispose of their resources for ready cash.
Five grave dangers faced the present administration in
1933; an increase in Indian population; an alarming decrease in In-
dian land as a result of the allotment system; decreased productivi-
ty due to soil erosion; an accumulation of Indian paupers on the out-
skirts of towns and agencies; and the deplorable state of Indian
health, with high frequency of tuberculosis and trachoma. Rehabil-
itation in the short period since then and its significant results
interested Dr. Price greatly.
"Attempts are being made to meet Indian needs by re-pur-
chasing for them a little of the land torn from them in previous de-
cades, and by preventing further alienation by allotment. So long
as Congress appreciates the rights and needs of the aboriginal peo-
ples, and the danger of reducing their small remaining resources, the
tribes will be able to retain their existing lands.
"As the Indians are increasing and are mainly dependent
upon primary production, they will need additional land or more pro-
ductive land in the years to come. These needs are being faced by a
splendid emergency effort to stop erosion by engineering, vegetation
work and grazing control. Grazing regulations entered into by the
Navajos to reduce their stock to the approved carrying capacity of
their ranges are a good example of Indian Office tact. An authori-
tarian government would have sent out its officers to destroy the
vast numbers of useless horses and other stock contributing to the
erosion. Instead, the Indian Office quietly educates a people, most
of whom cannot write or speak English, to carry out the reforms of
their own accord. In some cases pressure has been necessary, but
after seeing the country and the urgent need of action, I feel that
even more pressure would be justified.
"Wholly praiseworthy are the fine efforts made to foster
secondary industries, such as silver work, rug weaving and basket
making. The discovery of wider markets (as by means of the magnifi-
cent exhibition at the San Francisco Fair) and the adoption of Gov-
ernment stamps to signify genuine Indian goods should assist native
inaustries and raise living standards. How much this work is needed
may be seen from the fact that it is estimated that a Navajo woman
receives about five cents per hour for very laborious rug weaving.
"One is very much impressed by the health work o f the In-
dian Department and the fine hospitals and sanatoria which the In-
dians are beginning to use freely despite opposition from the medi-
cine men. Particularly satisfactory is the fact that a cure has
been found for the terrible trachoma which so often results in blind-
ness. So successful has been this work that one school, entirely
limited to trachoma cases, is to be closed as its task is completed.
"The schools seem to be doing excellent work. The trans-
ference of boarding school pupils to day schools and the home en-
vironment has been welcomed by the Indians, and is one factor in the
general policy of permitting the Indians to remain as a self-support-
ing and self-respecting people rather than attempting to absorb them
into the white race. I was particularly impressed by the vocational
work in many schools, such as those on the Paiute and Navajo Reserva-
tions and the practical way in which the education was adjusted to
Indian needs rather than to unsuitable white requirements.
"There is no doubt that the Indian will work and work hard
if he is lifted from a state of life in which he has no incentive,
and in which he knows that most of the products of his labor will
pass to whites. I saw Indians at work in road making, forestry,
agriculture, pasturing and in home industries and the excellent re-
sulting products. I was particularly impressed with that fine or-
ganization»the Indian CCC, both in its practical work in conserving
and furthering national and natural resources and in its vocational
and training aspects.
"While visiting the Mescalero Apache Reservation, I in-
spected the new housing program initiated by the tribal business com-
mittee. I visited the houses of Indians whose tribes had responded
not long ago to white cruelty by reprisals of the worst type and
found peaceful, comfortable homes and people who obviously regarded
the superintendent as a guide, philosopher and friend.
"Among the finest developments of the new work is the re-
organization of the administration itself by decentralization, by
the employment of a large number of Indians and by the attempt to re-
establish among the Indians a measure of local self-government. There
is no doubt that the Bureau and the reservation officers are proud
of the success which is being achieved, and are seething with mis-
sionary energy. One was greatly impressed by the number of compara-
tively young people who were holding responsible positions and were
real enthusiasts in their work.
"I will not attempt to deal at length with the ideology
which underlies this interesting attempt to rehabilitate the Indian
in the United States," Dr. Price concluded, "except to say that those
who now promote it believe that the Indian people and their native
civilization can make a real contribution to the nation, and that the
former efforts to destroy everything Indian and to merge these folk
into the white population were detrimental both to the Indians and to
THE NORTH STAR TO VISIT THE SOUTHERN CROSS
Indian Service Supply Ship To Join Byrd Antarctic Expedition
U. S. M. S. NORTH STAR
The NORTH STAR, Indian Service ship which braves the ice
fields once each year to reach Point Barrow, Alaska, the northern-
most point on the North American continent, will reverse its voyage
during the coming year and journey to the opposite end of the
The ship has been loaned for six months to the Division
of Territories and Island Possessions in the Department of the In-
terior for an expedition to the Antarctic.
The purpose of the U. S. expedition, which will be com-
manded by Admiral Richard E. Byrd and in which various governmental
agencies, as well as representatives of recognized American scien-
tific institutions will participate, is to investigate the possibil-
ities of resources in the Antarctic and map certain areas whic h
American explorers have frequented since 1820.
According to present plans, the NORTH STAR will not make
its annual voyage to Point Barrow this year, but will embark from
Seattle, Washington, for South Pole waters about October 15, re-
turning to its home port around April 19*+0.
The NORTH STAR, which is one of three ships to be used in
the expedition, was especially constructed in 1932 for servicing
the personnel of the Office of Indian Affairs in the isolated areas
The NORTH STAR is a 225-foot wooden vessel with a Diesel
engine and is of unusually staunch construction. Below the water
line, the ship is sheathed with Australian iron bark, a wood which
receives its name because its hard consistency requires that it be
riveted like iron. The bow and stern are so constructed that if the
ship hits ice, it slides up on the ice instead of crashing.
The NORTH STAR has an 1800-ton cargo capacity, a crew of
25, and accommodations for 23 first-class passengers. The two
other ships for the expedition, the BEAR, formerly a Coast Guard
cutter and now owned by Admiral Byrd, and the NORTHLAND, a Coast
Guard cutter of steel construction, both accommodate larger crews
but have less tonnage capacity.
According to plans which are not yet complete, the NORTH
STAR will be manned by its present crew and captained by S. T. L.
Whitlam, although provisions are being made for additional person-
nel, including navigators, radio operators and ice pilots within the
$3A0,000 appropriation recently granted by Congress for the expedi-
A private ship, the REDWOOD, will substitute for the NORTH
STAR beginning the latter part of July, while the BOXER, the other
Indian Service motor ship, will extend its July voyage as far north
as Teller and Port Clarence, Alaska.
Calling at ports along a coast line longer than the com-
bined coast lines of the United States, the Indian Service ships
are often greeted on arrival with merry native celebrations. For
Eskimos, Indians, and whites alike in Alaska, located beyond private
transportation lines, the arrival of the Indian Service ships mark
their only touch with the outside world.
Cargoes of Indian Service ships usually consist of several
hundred pounds of mail, clothing, reading matter, radios, hundreds
of cases of canned foodstuffs and building materials to last the
371 persons employed in the government hospitals and schools main-
tained for some 30,000 Alaska natives for at least a year.
INDIAN ART IN THE MODERN HOME
By Clyde C. Hall
(NOTE: The following article is reprinted
through courtesy of "The American Home Magazine")
Indian art and modern art are shades of a common color.
Each is characterized by simplicity of line, strength of form, and
absence of all extraneous matter. Brought together in two model
rooms in the Indian exhibit at the Golden Gate International Expo-
sition, they weld themselves naturally into an effective interior
motif for American homes. Interpreted in wood, ceramic, and textile,
they join together happily the romance-adventure of early America
and the simple utilitarian requirements of rooms in the home of to-
Adopting an idea of Rene d'Harnoncourt, General Manager
of the Indian Arts and Crafts Board of the Interior Department, Hen-
ry Klumb, resourceful young Washington architect, designed the fur-
niture, all of which was made by Indian students in Oklahoma and New
Mexico schools. Accessories are completely Indian, from the back-
rest of the Blackfeet Tribe to the baskets of the Eastern Cherokee.
In demonstrating that Indian-made articles are distinctly suitable
for home in-
the rooms did
not fast en
p eace pipes,
o r minia t ure
canoes to the
walls of a
man's d e n.
walls, let the
its own case
for public ap-
a chance, at
last, to stand
on their own feet, Indian arts and crafts present brilliantly their
unique offering to the adornment of American home interiors.
The following Indian accessories are among those exhibited:
PUEBLO: ceremonial drum, used as end table; ACOMA PUEBLO: ash tray;
TSIA PUEBLO: tile for facing of fireplace, designed and made by an
Indian; SOUTHWEST: Kachina doll, as ornament for mantelpiece; NAVAJO:
tapestry, made from woman's dress; SNOHOMISH: divan throw; HOPI:
"Wedding Plaque" of sumac and rabbit-brush, wall decoration; SANTA
CLARA PUEBLO: black earthenware pot; KIOWA: man's dance headdress,
used in ceremonies, decorative piece; IROQUOIS: corn-husk mask,
decorative piece; BLACKFEET: backrest, willow slats tied with buck-
skin lacing; CHEROKEE (N.C.): honeysuckle basket; PAPAGO: basket-
tray of yucca grass and devil's claw; CHOCTAW: homespun table throw
and tapestry cover for furniture; and KICKAP00: mat woven of native
Rooted deep in the traditions of early America, these In-
dian craft pieces lend a new warmth and individuality to present-day
home interiors. Fascinating, the answer to their abiding charm has
already been suggested in their description - willow, honeysuckle,
baked earth colors, porcupine hair, yucca grass and devil's claw,
sumac and rabbit-brush. These are part of America, genuinely our
own. These, the gifted hands of our own Indian craftsmen fashion
into articles of beauty for the American home.
(Photographs by Newsart - San Francisco, California.)
INDIANS AND INDIAN MATTERS AS GLIMPSED IN THE DAILY PRESS
Butte Dam drilling tests have begun. The dam, estimated
cost of which is $5,200,(300, will be constructed by the United States
Indian Service and the Works Progress Administration to impound flood
waters of the San Pedro River to irrigate San Carlos Project lands.
Phoenix , Arizona . Republic . 6-29-39 .
Tom Dodge, son of the last great Navajo war chieftain,
Chee Dodge, has announced his resignation as special assistant to
Superintendent E. R. Fryer of the Navajo Reservation to do special
work. He is a member of the New Mexico Bar Association. Albuquer-
que . New Mexico . Journal . 6-24--39 .
Indian CCC workers at the Fort McDermitt Reservation, un-
der the Carson Agency in Nevada, are busy battling Mormon crickets
in a unique manner. They have learned that by being quiet they can
gradually herd the crickets down a canyon, across the Quinn River on
a specially constructed brush bridge and then head the devastating
insects three miles across and finally off the reservation. Carson
City . Nevada . Daily Appeal . 5-25-39 .
Fred Snite, Jr., 29-year-old Chicago infantile paralysis
victim, toured the New York World's Fair in his iron lung, escorted
by the Fair's mounted troupe of Haskell Indians. Philadelphia . Pa .
Inquirer . 6-29-39 .
W. H. Murray, former Governor of Oklahoma, paid high trib-
ute to Douglas H. Johnston, Governor of the Chickasaws, upon his
recent death. "To me he came as near as any man could to being a
perfect man, " Mr. Murray said. Oklahoma City . Oklahoma . Oklahoman.
Five years under the Reorganization Act find the Indians
and the Government unified as rarely before. The Indian birthrate
is now the highest in the country and the death rate is falling.
Federal works and loans are helping the red men to rise above the
poverty level. St. Louis . Missouri . Post Dispatch . 7-1-39 .
War dances and ceremonials by Indians of the Pine Ridge
Reservation and the unveiling of Sculptor Gutzon Borglum' s last fig-
ure (that of Teddy Roosevelt) at Mount Rushmore will be features
at the jubilee celebration observing South Dakota's Golden Anni-
versary of statehood. The CBS National Radio Network will broad-
cast the ceremonies. Sioux Falls. South Dakota . Argus-Lea der .
Chief Black Cloud of the Chippewas, a civil engineering
graduate of Carlisle and a former agent of the United States Geo-
graphic Survey, is making arrangements for a week-long celebration
and festival at Pontiac, Michigan, in July. More than 1,500 Chip-
pewas will attend. Among the distinguished men invited are Presi-
dent Roosevelt, Governor Luren D. Dickinson, United States Senators
Arthur H. Vandenberg and Prentiss Brown, Congressman George A. Don-
dero and State Highway Commissioner Murray D. Van Wagoner. Pontiac,
Michigan . Press . 6-26-39 .
Mr. A. C. Monahan, Regional Coordinator for the Indian
Service, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, in a letter to Lewis Ware, Pres-
ident of the American Indian Exposition, verified plans for cooper-
ation of every Indian agency and Government Indian school in Okla-
homa with the Exposition, to be held August 23, 24, 25, and 26.
Anadarko, Oklahoma . 7-5-39 »
A carefully worked out educational project of the United
States Indian Service is the Cottage Dormitory idea at the Standing
Rock Indian Agency, Fort Yates, North Dakota, where Indian boys and
girls living too far to reach the high school by bus are selected
to live a normal family home life. Boston . Massachusetts . The
Christian Science Monitor. 7-5-39.
- D.C.B. -
MESA VERDE PINE LOGS LAST NEARLY NINE CENTURIES
In the year when the Norman knights defeated King Harold
at Senlac and conquered Saxon England, Indians were using stone axes
to chop down pine trees to log-roof a cliff dwelling in a canyon of
what is now the Mesa Verde National Park in Colorado.
Those log-beams survived through the centuries. According
to the tree-ring method of dating, the earliest of the many masonry
cliff ruins in this area was built about 1066 A.D. For several cen-
turies previously the Mesa Verde was occupied by the ancestors of
the present Pueblo Indians of New Mexico. Remains of the ancient
Basket Makers, a still earlier people, have been found in several of
the Mesa Verde caves. (Reprinted from "Facts and Artifacts.")
INDIAN CHILDREN EXHIBIT PAINTINGS AND DRAWINGS IN WASHINGTON
WASHING HAIR, a painting by 15-year-
old Marie Abeita, a Pueblo Indian
girl. This painting was a part of
the American Indian Children's Art
Exhibition. (Photograph by Federal
Art Project. )
Paintings and draw-
ings by Indian children of
the Pueblo, Cherokee, Apache,
Papago, and Navajo Tribes
were exhibited from June 6
to 20 at the Children's Fed-
eral Art Gallery in Washing-
ton, D. C.
The drawings showed
unusual ability, sense of de-
sign and action. Some of the
art was in the traditional
Indian stylized form w i th
rain-cloud, thunderbird, and
plant patterns. Others com-
bined traditional motifs with
modern interpretation; still
others broke completely with
For instance, a Navajo boy is influenced entirely by trib-
al tradition. His figures are typically Indian and in relief. Their
costumes are exquisitely drawn with subtle coloring. The paintings
are a decorative design. Sev-
eral other drawings were por-
trayed in the Indian manner,
but, such as WASHING HAIR de- I
picted scenes from modern
Features of the In-
dian and white schools were
combined in other drawings.
The most interesting of these
two was a two-wall frieze in
crayon, showing a corral and
bucking bronco scene, an im-
aginative and unusual under-
taking for a young boy.
By contrast, t he
vicious-looking bull (on the
right), is influenced by mod-
This vicious-looking bull was painted
b y 17-year-old Stephen R e d B o w, an
exhibitor in the American Indian Chil-
dren's Art Exhibition. (Photograph
by Federal Art Project.)
em technique. Likewise, Noah Jumping Elk of Black Pipe School in
South Dakota, in his painting of Indians at a Square Dance, has a
keen eye, quick to catch figures in motion. The people, the scene,
perspective, background and concept are realistic, according to white
m "K" ~n ">C /f Tr "IC -rt 7T -ft- Of "/C -fC « -Jf "K"
JOHN V. QUINLAN APPOINTED MENOMINEE INDIAN MILLS MANAGER
The appointment of John V. Quinlan as Manager of the Men-
ominee Indian Mills* at Neopit, Wisconsin, has been announced by
Secretary of the Interior, Harold L. Ickes. Mr. Quinlan succeeds
Herman W. Johannes who resigned to become general manager of a lum-
ber company at Rib Lake, Wisconsin.
Since 1905 Mr. Quinlan has been in the employ of the Men-
ominee Bay Shore Lumber Company at Soperton, Wisconsin, and for sev-
eral years, has been Vice-President and General Manager of the com-
pany. The Indian Office feels very fortunate in obtaining his serv-
ices to direct timber operations on the reservation.
One of the largest Indian industrial enterprises, ranking
with the more extensive private lumbering concerns in the Lake State
Region, the Menominee Indian Mills last year sold around 15,000,000
board feet of white pine, hemlock and hardwood lumber, which, with
its by-products, was valued at approximately $754,000.
Operating for more than 30 years under the La Follette Act
of 1908, the Indian Mills have carried on lumber activities on the
nearly 200,000 acres of forest on the Menominee Indian Reservation.
Under a sustained yield plan, the maximum annual cut of timber is
fixed by statute in order to preserve the Menominee forest capital
and thus assure for posterity a perpetual revenue.
* See "Indians At Work", December 1, 1936 and July 1939 .~~
Water will be lifted from the Main Canal of the Gila Dam
Project in Arizona at three separate pumping plants and distributed
by concrete-lined canals to approximately 150,000 acres of irrigable
land in the Yuma Desert Area. The irrigation project, according to
present plans, will not extend to Indian lands.
ISOLATED ESKIMOS ON KING ISLAND IN BERING SEA ADOPT CONSTITUTION
AND MAKE TOTAL OF ONE HUNDRED TRIBES UNDER SELF - GOVERNMENT LAW
tive Eskimos of
Island in the
Bering Sea have
adopted a consti-
tution for self-
has taken since
last January for
news of the elec-
tion to reach the
«... t- i - j>' * im. n .. o Office of Indian
King Island In The Bering Sea Affairs in Wash-
ington. The adoption of a constitution by the 180 King Islanders
makes one hundred tribes in the United States and Alaska that have
taken this action.
Marooned on their rock-like home during all but the sum-
mer months, the action of the King Islanders in drawing up a con-
stitution in order that they may take advantage of the terms of the
Alaska Act of 1936, which is similar to the Indian Reorganization
Act, is heartening to Indian Service officials.
For here is a group who makes its home on what is thought
to be a mountain top, jutting 940 feet out of the sea. And its
struggle for existence is as rugged as its island home.
Duri n g
the winter months
the King Island-
ers hunt walrus.
When the ice be-
gi n s to melt in
June, the King
I s 1 an ders move
Nome, A laska,
which is ninety
miles s o uthwest
o f them a c ross
the Bering Sea.
They travel i n
Houses On Stilts At King Island
oomiaks (boats of animal skins, modernized in the last ten years
with the addition of outboard motors).
In Nome the King Islanders sell their ivory tusks and find
employment as ivory-carvers or longshoremen. As soon as they are
able to purchase food and clothing supplies to last the winter months
they return to their isolated homes, usually in September.
The island is about one-half a mile wide and one mile long.
The village consists of about twenty small houses propped up against
walls of rock by means of long poles, and a new schoolhouse which
was built about eight years ago.
The Indian Office has employed a teacher at King Island
for almost twenty years, but it was not until four years ago that
a white teacher was found for this almost inaccessible post.
With the adoption of a constitution, the King Islanders
may now apply for a loan in order to market their goods and secure
their economic livelihood.
* * * * * * *
PAIUTE INDIAN AGENCY DISCONTINUED
In order to facilitate the administration of Indian af-
fairs in the sparsely settled areas of Southern Nevada and Utah, ap-
proximately a dozen reservations formerly under the Paiute Indian
Agency were placed under the jurisdiction of three other agencies
on July 1. The Paiute Indian Agency at Cedar City, Utah, will be
The reservations have been divided among the agencies as
follows: Carson Agency: Las Vegas Colony and Moapa River Reserva-
tion; Western Shoshone Agency: Goshute, Skull Valley and Gandy Res-
ervations; Uintah and Ouray Agency: Shivwits, Kaibab, Kanosh, Koosh-
harem, Cedar City and Paiute (or Indian Peak) Reservations.
Three clerks employed at the Paiute Agency are being trans-
ferred to the other three agencies. Mr. C. L. Lynch, Acting Super-
intendent, will remain at Cedar City during July and August to as-
sist in distributing the property and records among the agencies
which will take over the work.
A TRUCK GARDEN ON THE PINE RIDGE RESERVATION . SOUTH DAKOTA
By John M. Scott, Holy Rosary Mission Boarding School
Harvest time finds the young Sioux Indian boys of Holy Rosary
Mission storing up supplies for the winter season.
Some four miles north of Pine Ridge may be found the thriv-
ing gardens of the Holy Rosary Mission. There, last season, from
fifty 150-foot rows of carrots planted, came smooth Early Chant enays
and wide-shouldered Danvers to the number of five hundred bushels.
And this is but one of the many vegetables which thrive in the South
Dakota soil. From 4,000 cabbage plants, there came not only enough
for the table, but enough to make thirteen barrels of sauerkraut;
while almost every one of the ^00 cauliflower plants grew into fine
solid heads. Nine 150-foot rows of cucumbers provided enough for
table use during the summer and also gave nine barrels of pickles
which are being served to the Sioux boys and girls as relish at the
dinner table. Fifty-two 150-foot rows of onions gave a yield of over
150 bushels. Everything from celery to eggplants thrive in this gar-
den. The secret? Plenty of water and fertilizer, and war on bugs,
fleas, army worms and grasshoppers.
The convenient White Clay Creek furnishes ample water. The
creek is about eighteen feet below the ground level where it flows by
on the north side of the garden, so a stretch of flumes and irriga-
tion ditches were made to tap it further upstream.
The chicken house and dairy barn supply all the fertilizer
needed. The fresh manure, however, is not put on the garden, but is
thrown together with the old bedding,
into a large pit some ten feet deep,
where it is allowed to stay for a
year or more. Frequent floods of
water are allowed to soak in upon it
by opening the flume in one of the
irrigation ditches. During the fall
months this well-decomposed fertiliz-
er is dug out of the pit, tossed on
the wagons, and spread around the
As water and fertilizer are
plentiful, it looks as though there
should be a bumper crop every year,
but there are the fleas, army worms,
beetles and grasshoppers, which of
late years have done much damage to
crops. And though the grasshoppers
swarmed over the fields last summer
like armies on the march, Brother
Schlienger, the gardener, feared them
the least. Every morning, while the
squadrons of hoppers were on the ad-
vance, he entrenched his garden be-
hind a line of bran mixed with syrup, poison and sawdust. With this
fortification the majority of the hoppers were held off, though some
did break through and invaded the carrots, onions and beans. From
the first two mentioned, the grasshoppers were easily dislodged by
sprinkling the poisonous mixture on the tops of the carrots and on-
ions. But with the beans, it was a more difficult task, for the
poison did as much harm to the bean leaves as it did to the hoppers,
so the poison had to be scattered on the ground around the plants.
The result of all this labor is a seasoned table graced
with a variety of garden foodstuffs fresh and tasty. From the early
peas and asparagus to the Golden Bantam corn and the Hearts of Gold
muskmelon you can sit down and satisfy your hunger with the appetiz-
ing and healthy foodstuffs grown in the garden southwest of the
One of the students dis-
playing the large-size
carrots grown in the
Besides satisfying the appetites of the hungry Sioux, the
garden also serves as a training ground, teaching the lads how they
too may grow successful crops; in fact, not only the boys themselves
are shown how to raise gardens, but some of the older men drop a-
round to inquire how to produce certain crops. Thus, the garden
serves a two-fold purpose - as a provider for the pantry and hungry
stomachs, and as a practical lesson in the art of making the most of
the Good Earth.
NATIVE NAVAJO RUG WEAVERS DEMONSTRATE
THE USE OF NATURAL DYES TO COLOR YARNS
Two Navajo rug weavers are demonstrating to the public
their methods of using natural dyes to color the yarn they weave
into rugs at the Indian exhibit in connection with the Golden Gate
International Exposition at San Francisco.
The weavers are Zonie Lee of Fort Defiance, and Mabel Bum-
side of Fort Wingate, New Mexico. They have set up their hand looms
in the Indian exhibit where, it is expected, they will work until the
Exposition ends. Each has woven rugs that have won first prizes
against exceedingly strong competition in the Southwest.
The weavers have brought with them raw wool just as it is
when sheared off sheep on the Navajo Reservation. They clean, spin,
and card the wool before it can be dyed. The public has more than
one chance to see the dyeing process since Navajos usually dye at
one time only enough yarn to make one rug. Because several rugs
will be woven, the dyeing process will be repeated many times. Hence,
persons particularly interested in watching the making of a Navajo
rug from start to finish are able to follow the development step by
step - spinning, carding, dyeing, and weaving.
One of the finest weavers among the younger group in New
Mexico, Mabel Burns ide, graduated this year from the Fort Wingate
High School for Indians.
For the first time since the Exposition opened, a papoose
came to the Indian exhibit when Mrs. Lee arrived with her three-year-
old daughter, Dolly May. In native costumes, the two Navajo weavers
and tiny Dolly May have added a domestic touch to the open-air In-
Expertly woven, Zonie Lee's rugs are selling almost as soon
as they are taken from the loom, despite the fact that they command
Originally all Navajo blankets were colored with natural
dyes, but when the white man began to use the blankets for rugs,
the weavers used commercial dyes to satisfy white demands for bright-
Encouraged by the Indian Arts and Crafts Board to preserve
their original methods, many Navajos are now returning to the use of
natural dyes - vegetable, animal, and mineral - which, although less
flamboyant, hold their color better and impart to the fabric a posi-
tive note of authenticity. Present plans contemplate preparation of
the dyes over an open fire in the market-place.
MAYNARD DIXON MURALS IN DEPARTMENT OF INTERIOR BUILDING*
Passing Of The Old Regime For The Indians
Beginning Of The New Era
*See July 1939 Indians At Work
Pictures Courtesy Section of Fine Arts, Treasury Department
" HORSE LEATHER " - RAWHIDE QUIRTS AND LARIATS
ONCE MORE AVAILABLE FOR WEST COAST RANCHERS
Word has been passed among California ranchers that genuine
Indian-fashioned rawhide lariats are once again available near home -
a possible explanation for the brisk trade in "horse leather" in the
Indian market-place of the Golden Gate International Exposition at
San Francisco in California.
Encouraged by the Indian Arts and Crafts Board of the In-
terior Department to sell their craft at the Exposition, the Papago
Tribe of Arizona appropriated money to send their famous yucca-and-
devil's-claw baskets to Treasure Island. Almost as an afterthought,
they also sent several pieces of what they call "horse leather"
rawhide quirts and lariats. Displayed for little more than two weeks
in the Indian market-place, the lariats were sold out to eager pur-
chasers among West Coast ranchers who had been sending to Mexico for
their cattle rope, because hand-twisted rawhide lariats were no long-
er made locally. One told another, and today the second shipment of
Papago Indian lariats is nearly gone.
About as thick as a man's little finger, the four-strand
lariat is made of "live" or recently-slaughtered steer hide in
lengths varying from 27 to 45 feet. The hondo, or loop through which
the rope passes, is also made of rawhide, hardened by soaking in hot
water. It is a favorite lariat of Southwest cow-punchers who, be-
sides using it on the range, prefer its tough reliability for steer-
roping contests at rodeos.
In ceremonies held recently celebrating the fifth anniver-
sary of the enactment of the Taylor Grazing Act of 1934, Secretary
of the Interior Harold L. Ickes paid high tribute to eighty-one-
year-old Representative Edward T. Taylor, of Colorado, author of the
first Federal grazing control legislation.
The act which bears Representative Taylor's name was char-
acterized by Secretary Ickes as one of the greatest conservation
measures ever passed by the Congress of the United States. The Tay-
lor Act provides for control of livestock grazing and improvements
on one hundred and twenty million acres of public land in fifty Fed-
eral grazing districts in ten Western states.
NEW YORK AGENCY MOVED TO BUFFALO
Removal of the New York Indian Agency from Salamanca to
Buffalo, New York, was ordered recently by Secretary of the Interior
Harold L. Ickes, as a means of increasing the efficiency of admin-
istration of the affairs of the 6,600 New York State Indians on seven
Indian matters in New York are handled by both Federal and
state governments and many branch offices of the state agencies con-
cerned with Indians are located at Buffalo. Also, the fact that Buf-
falo is more accessible to the largest number of reservations in the
state is another factor involved in the change.
At Salamanca will remain a sub-office containing the rec-
ords needed to transact the large real estate business that has grown
up there, since a great deal of property is tribally owned and leased
Probably, Salamanca also will continue to witness the tra-
ditional ceremony of giving to each Indian annually the six yards
of calico set forth in a treaty of 1794 as a perpetual right. Each
year this cloth is dispensed by the Government as part of its obliga-
tion to insure that the Indians will remain in "peace and friendship"
with the United States.
MOJAVE TRIBE OF ARIZONA NAMES NEW LAKE
Surprised at the color of the new lake above Parker Dam,
formed by the coffee-colored water of the Colorado River, the lead-
er of a band of Mojave Indians recently called it "Havasu. " In the
Mojave Indian language "Havasu" means "blue. "
Feeling that the word was appropriate for the new artifi-
cial lake which is a clear blue, despite its source, the Secretary
of the Interior, Harold L. Ickes, and John C. Page, Commissioner of
the Bureau of Reclamation, proposed "Havasu" as the official name
for the lake.
Havasu Lake will cover 25,000 acres and will extend from
the dam near Parker, Arizona, to a point a few miles south of Needles,
INDIANS IN PERIODICAL LITERATURE
AMERICAN INDIAN MODERN. Indian exhibit at the Golden Gate Interna-
tional Exposition. C. C. Hall. American Home. 22:25.
ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS. Exhibition of prehistoric basket-maker
Indians of Southwestern Colorado. Science. 89:552. June
INDIAN LIFE IN STAMPS OF THE PAN AMERICAN COUNTRIES. B. Newhall.
Bulletin of Pan American Union. 73:322-36. June 1939.
LET THE LNDIANS GROW UP! E. G. Eastman. The Social Frontier. July
ON LEARNING TO SPEAK. E. G. Eastman. Education. 59:610-612. June
APPLIED ZOOLOGY. F. Thone. Science News Letter. 35:367. June 10
* ft -ft -:;- -*«-*-& * * *
The National Park Service has announced its radio series
"Nature Studies" will be continued throughout the summer on Satur-
day mornings, ending September 9.
The fifteen-minute programs may be heard over the Red Net-
work of the NBC at 8:45 a.m. (Mountain Standard Time) or 10:4.5 a.m.
(Eastern Standard Time).
The broadcasts which are handled through field microphones
during trailside discussions in Junior Nature School parties are
scheduled for the remainder of the summer as follows:
July 15: "A Stroll Among The Trees"; July 22: "Wildlife
At The Roadside"; July 29: "Keeping Up With Wildlife"; August 5:
"Scouting The Trailside"; August 12: "Flowers Of The Fading Season";
August 19: "Six Legs, Or Eight?"; August 26: "Plant Journeys";
September 2: "Reading The Mountains 1 Story"; September 9: "A Mu-
seum Visit. "
CIVILIAN CONSERVATION COR
INDIAN DIVISION— NOTES FR
WEEKLY PROGRESS REPOR1
Insects and forest fires
have been keeping the enrollees of
the Indian Division of the Civilian
Conservation Corps busy during the
last month or more. Field activity
reports from reservations throughout
the West tell of the fight being made
by the Indians to save their lands
and crops from destruction by fire
' ^JFr^llfc *!''.j»i£
CCC Enrollees Build Roads In The
Desert. Pima Agency, Arizona.
A Section Of The Finished
McDowell Truck Trail At
Pima Agency, Arizona.
Fort Totten Agency , North
Dakota , states that "The Grasshopper
Eradication Project is well under
way. One crew of eight men are mix-
ing and sacking the poison with a
one -bag cement mixer. One truck is hauling the
mixed bait to the various spreaders throughout
the reservation. All Indian land infested with
the pest will be covered. "
Other reservations are equally active
such as Rocky Boy ' s , Montana , where "Several
crews of men are scattering poison bran with
good results", or Winnebago . Nebraska ., who
states that "We are making a start on grass-
hopper control; an effort will be made to keep
ahead of the 'hoppers on Indian and trib al
lands" and at Fort Peck . Montana, "Two thousand
four hundred and forty-four acres of land were
covered by both the west and east end crews. "
Mormon crickets as well as grasshop-
pers have been a problem for the CCC-ID to
tackle and the effectiveness of the enrollees'
work can be judged by the report from Western
Shoshone Agency , Nevada , that "Three hundred
bushels of crickets were trapped by the use of
tin barriers and 100 acres of infested areas
were sprayed. "
That the work of insect control is
not easy is shown by the report from Sisse t on
Agency , South Dakota, which states that, "Work
of this nature is guided by the weather ele-
ments and they have been ideal during this week.
The only bad feature here is
that part of having to get up
at 4. a.m. in order to start
work at 5 a.m. The crew who
spreads by hand now has a-
dapted itself to met hods
prescribed and is doing ex-
cellent work. "
Dry summer weather
increased the fire haza r d
throughout the nation, and
the CCC-ID did its part in
suppression work. At the
Sells Agency ( Papago ) , Ariz -
ona , "Fire broke out in Al-
hambra Valley and covered ap-
proximately 2,000 acres. The
men on this fire were handi-
capped because of the steep-
ness of the slopes, rocky
ledges, and the changing wind,
although they all made good
headway and did the job up in
excellent condition. " C r ow
Agency , Montana , stated that
"most of the boys were out on
the fire line fighting fires
in the Wolf Mountains" and
Tulalip Agency , Washington,
reported that "It was neces-
sary to put 10 men on a fire
fighting project to sup-
press a 200-acre farm
fire" while Jic arilla
Apache Agency , New Mex-
i c o, had twenty men
fighting forest fires.
Small fires were sup-
pressed by CCC-ID crews
at Fort Berthold Reser-
vation , North D a kota ,
and at Mescalero Agency ,
fighting them were taught en-
rollees in fire schools on a
number of reservations. At
Colville Agency , Washington,
"The boys attended the fire
school at Coyote Creek Camp.
The finer points of fighting
fire were taught, as was the
necessity of having the prop-
er tools to fight fire and
the correct way to use them.
Instructions were also given
in radio operation and the
Agency doctor gave a very in-
teresting talk on first-aid. "
When not interrupted
by forest fires and insects,
the CCC-ID enrollees are go-
ing ahead with their work of
conserving the natural re-
sources of the Indian people,
besides learning many useful
trades themselves. A report
from the Cheyenne River Agen-
cy, South Dakota, states that
"It is a pleasure to watch
the operation of the elevat-
ing graders, blades and trac-
tors under the guidance of
all Indian operators. They
remind you of a professional
The danger of
forest fires and the
methods of locating and
Practical CCC-ID Training At Potawatomi, (Kansas),
Enrollees Taking Field Trip To Study Value Of
Contour Farming On 400-Acre Ranch.
contracting crew for the re-
sults they get. So far, over
a period of several years, I
have failed to see any differ-
ence in their efforts to ac-
complish as much as possible
in production efficiency and
care of the machines. The en-
rollees are to be commended
for their cooperating spirit
That the Indian en-
rollees are interested in sav-
ing the history and arts of
their people is shown in a re-
port from Siss eton A gency ,
South Dakota . which states
"The camp site project now in
progress at the Beaver Dam at
Sica Hollow is in many ways a
worthy undertaking. Henry Roy,
the original locator there,'
was one of the outstanding In-
dians of the old type. The
old Hudson Bay Fur Company had
many notable gatherings there.
It was, and still is, a tribal
gathering spot. We will even-
tually bring out the beauties
of this place, not artificial-
ly, but by helping nature."
And at United Pueblos Agency ,
New Mexico , under a project
for the restoration of his-
toric structures the enrollees
are "leveling and eliminating
danger of cave-ins at clay
pits where Indians get clay
for pottery. "
Enrollee train in g
receives its share of space in
the current reports. The
Flat head Ag e n c y , Montana,
tells of one week of educa-
tional activities as follows:
"The enrollee program activi-
ties for the week consisted of
the following: machine opera-
tion, job-training and support
training at the Valley Creek
Camp, carpentry job-training
at the Irving Lookout Camp,
safety meetings at all camps
and a one-day fire training
school at the agency tribal
hall on Friday. "
At Cheyenne R iv er
Agency , South Dakota , t h ey
have just finished building an
enrollee traveling library and
their report states that, "It
is a fine addition to our en-
rollee program-education and
welfare. The trailer was
built to specifications as
furnished by our district of-
fice at Billings. It is built
for year-round ser vice and
conv enie nc e, heat in g, and
lighting included. We have
made arrangements with the a-
gency school to bor row 100
books at a time, on a two-week
exchange basis. The traveling
library starts out among our
crews and loans out books to
individuals with the under-
standing that they are to be
returned within the two-week
period, and in turn, they are
permitted to sign for other
books. When convenient, other
arrangements will be made for
books and magazines from other
sources. A motion pic ture
projector will be added to the
library when arrangements can
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